The story begins with a man named Egeon. He is in trouble with the Duke of Ephesus because he has broken a rule and he should be punished for his crime. As a last effort, Egeon tells the sad story of how he lost his wife and one of his twin boys in a shipwreck. He raised the other twin on his own, but he is still hoping that his family can be reunited. Egeon confesses that he is in town on the search for his long lost son and his wife. The Duke of the city feels bad for him and gives him one day to raise money to pay his debt or die.
Meanwhile the son of Egeon, named Antipholus of Syracuse, is traveling to Ephesus with his servant Dromio of Syracuse in search of his long lost twin brother. Unknown to Antipholus of Syracuse, his brother, Antipholus of Ephesus, lives in the city with his wife Adriana. Antipholus of Syracuse while on his search is mistaken for his brother by Dromio of Ephesus (his brother’s servant and twin to Antipholus of Syracuse’s very own Dromio of Syracuse). Antipholus of Ephesus, meanwhile, is attempting to buy his wife a gold chain as a gift to surprise her. He runs into Dromio of Syracuse and they have a confusing encounter about why he has not brought gift for Ephesus’s wife, Adriana, like he was asked to. At home, Adriana is worried since her husband hasn’t arrived for dinner and she, with her sister Luciana, goes out in search of him. As each Antiphoplus and Dromio travel about the city of Ephesus, they are mistaken for one another and chaos ensues.
After many forms of mistaken identity, Adriana and Luciana have Antipholus of Ephesus arrested and brought to a priest to try to cure him of madness. The Duke passes by this event searching, with Egeon, for someone who will pay the sum to set Egeon free. The Duke questions what Adriana is doing and she explains that her husband is under a spell. While they are talking, Anthipholus of Syracuse is seen fleeing the city. Thinking Antipholus of Ephesus has escaped from prison, the group chase Antipholus of Syracuse to a nearby abbey. The Duke attempts to intervene with the Abbess who refuses to let them in. Eventually the twins are both brought out and everyone realizes the source of the all their confusion. The Abbess shares a story that brings a total happy ending to The Comedy of Errors.